## Aspen and RightStart™ Mathematics Level A Lessons, Installment #4

Aspen has been doing great in her lessons, however is at times getting frustrated as she feels she is not learning fast enough. For example, when were were doing a lesson and using the AL Abacus to double check her addition, she thought she would be “cheating” if she used the abacus itself. I asked her why she felt it was cheating, and she replied that it made it easier, so it must be cheating. She’s really trying to use her mind’s eye, and it took some convincing that it’s perfectly fine to keep using the abacus for now, and for the next levels as she needs it.

Aspen is truly loving the lessons regarding the coins. She has made a game out of dumping out my purse so we can go through the coins to add. She struggles a bit with the dimes and the nickels. I have a feeling that the size confuses her a bit between the two coins, as she’s noted that the bigger one should be more. We’ll just have to keep playing with the money, as she has to add it together in order to put it into her piggy bank.

Aspen’s favorite game thus far has been the addition memory game. She absolutely loves it when she can say what she needs before asking for help or using the abacus. On occasion she still uses it, as she tends to get stuck on the 7′s and 8′s when coming up with the other addend to make 10. Now any normal memory game is a little boring to her without the added challenge of addition.

Partitioning for Aspen has been a bit challenging when using the Part-Whole Circle sets. She does well with the abacus, but when the circles continue to be brought into play, she seems to have a bit of a road-block when she looks at them. Eventually she gets it, but they do frustrate her. When having the two parts, she comes up with the whole easily, however, determining the part, when the whole and one part are given stumps her, and she takes a bit of time to come up with the answer. She tries to do it in her head, but quite often grabs her abacus to find the answer.

Aspen has been doing fairly well with telling time. She has been working on it, and loves to try to figure it out. She seems to really struggle with it, when she has to note if it’s bed time. Imagine that! If you tell her to note when it is time to go to the pool or somewhere fun, then she does seem to be at the top of her game.    She is pretty confident in the whole and half hours, but the other variations still cause her a bit of confusion.

Aspen was working with her dad doing the teens with her school work, and was getting really frustrated. I grabbed her abacus and we did the RightStart way of saying the teens, such as 1 Ten 3, then she was easily able to come up with the correct number, and quickly converted it to the conventional number way: 13. Her dad just looked at her, and was surprised by how she was able to come up with the correct answer going that route, as opposed to just knowing the convention number off the top of her head. He’s really noticing how well she is doing and is attributing it to her using RightStart in helping her advance in her math skills.

Aspen has been becoming a great cook’s helper, as she loves to help with the measuring and mixing. She gets to help find the correct measuring unit, either in the measuring cups or spoons to help create our kitchen masterpieces. (At least she things they are.) She is getting to be consistently correct, and going through the lesson on fractions was quite easy for her. She did extremely well when working on the second edition fraction lessons (as I had an advance copy). She didn’t call them the correct name, for example called the thirds “threes” instead, but after corrected, she flew through the lesson and found it to be so much fun. She is continuously playing with her Fraction Puzzle and Fraction Magnet we have located on our refrigerator.

## RightStart™ Manipulatives

What’s so special about the manipulatives used for the RightStart™ Mathematics program? Let’s run through the list.

NOT AVAILABLE ELSEWHERE:

AL Abacus: This abacus has 100 beads, is grouped in 5s and 10s using color. It is different from the Chinese abacus, the Japanese abacus, and “play” abacuses (where each string of beads is a different color). Both sides of the abacus are used in different ways. The AL Abacus is available in various colors, sizes, and materials.
Six Special Decks of Cards: Basic cards (0 to 10), multiplication cards, fraction cards, money cards, clock cards, and Corners™ cards make up the six decks.
Fraction Charts: One plastic fraction chart stays intact and a second chart is pre-cut to allow  the child to manipulate the individual pieces. Very importantly, this chart includes the 1/7ths and 1/9ths. It is also one color so that the student doesn’t associate a specific fraction with a specific color and encourages the “mixing and matching” of fractions without the constraints of color.
Abacus Tiles: These tiles are a representation of the AL Abacus allowing for a child to see what more than one hundred beads would look like.
Geometry Panels: We make these ourselves!
Place Value Cards: Adaptation from Montessori’s decimal cards.
Goniometer (Angle Measurer): Although this is not an item we make, it is no longer produced and almost impossible to find elsewhere.
Drawing Set: These pieces can all be found individually elsewhere and we assemble this in our warehouse. Triangles don’t having inking edges and the T-square is transparent for ease of use.
Base-Ten Cards: These drawings represent ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands with the groupings of five to allow for quick recognition of quantities. Images align with the AL Abacus bead grouping. Other base ten cards, stamps, and/or blocks ignore the grouping in fives.
Yellow is the Sun CD: We make these ourselves, although you can download the song online and the music is in the back of the teacher’s manual.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS NEEDED AND MAY BE A CHALLENGE TO FIND ELSEWHERE:

Math Balance: Pegs for the balance are on both sides of the balance arm which allows for twice as many weights to be hung on a number making multiplication a breeze. Weights are also 10 grams which is used in RightStart™ Mathematics Second Edition (RS2).
Centimeter Cubes: Our centimeter cubes weigh one gram. This is an important aspect for RS2!
Geometry Solids: We have a set of 12 wooden shapes. In RS2, these specific shapes are important because they are measured and weighed, as well as identified. Different shapes and sizes will alter the lesson significantly.
4-in-1 Ruler: This ruler measures in centimeters, millimeters, and inches in sixteenths. What makes this ruler special is inches divided into tenths! When a calculation calls for 4.3 inches, the student can precisely measure and draw 4.3 inches, rather than approximating.
Colored 1” Square Tiles: We had a hard time finding tiles that were consistently one inch square. Sadly, there was a LOT of variance. We have these tiles made in the USA now and have the precision needed. Quantities are 50 in four different colors.
Geoboards: These come two to a set. Pegs need to be 7 x 7. Many geoboards are 5 x 5 which will not allow for enough space for the children to do their lesson work.
Casio Calculator SL-450: This child-friendly calculator has a quirk that allows for skip counting, so the SL-450 is needed.
Mini-Clock: This clock is geared, which means the hour hand will appropriately follow the minute hand. Hour hand is color coordinated to the hour numbers and the minute hand is color coordinated to the minute numbers.
Tangrams: Tangrams can be found in all sizes and colors. Many other tangrams have rounded corners making measuring a challenge. RightStart™ provides two sets with two different colors and have sharp and precise edges. Lessons in RS2 reference the two colors.

EASIER TO FIND ELSEWHERE:

Tally Sticks: These are craft sticks. If you have some around the house, that will work! You will need 55 sticks.
Plastic Coins: As long as you have 30 pennies, 20 nickels, 20 dimes, 20 quarters, and 4 half-dollars, you’re ready to go.
Folding Meter Stick: Any meter stick will work. Ours folds simply for convenience.
Geometry Reflector: This handy reflector creates for reflections. It is made of transparent material, so it can also been seen through for additional comparisons. A rectangular hand-held mirror will also the trick.

We’re all for saving money. I’m right in there with you all! If I can shave off a penny here and a dollar there, I’m a happy girl. So, let’s say you can find some of these manipulatives at a second hand store, discount store, or borrow from your friend. That’s fantastic.

But then you still need the rest of the items.

The RightStart™ Mathematics kits have a significant discount savings. So, unless you have an amazing treasure of manipulatives at your fingertips, it’s usually cheaper to buy the kits because of the healthy discounts incorporated into the kit pricing. Discounts on the Starter Kits range from \$30.00 (SK-G) to \$83.50 (RS2 Math Set) to \$112.00 (RS1 Complete Kit).

In my book, that’s a nice savings!!

## Snub Cube Pattern

A customer called yesterday with an interesting question. She and her son were working on Lesson 164 in RightStart™ Mathematics; A Hands-On Geometric Approach. They were making a snub cube using the RightStart™ Geometry Panels and couldn’t get the net to work out. She was wondering if there was an error.

For those of you that want to know the short answer and not the details: the lesson has it right. The net does, in fact, become the polyhedra shown above.

For those of you that want to know the long answer and hear the story, settle in, and let me tell you the fun we had!

First of all, what IS a snub cube? A snub cube is one of the 13 Archimedean solids. It is formed by adding extra triangles around the squares of a cube. Specifically, 32 triangles are added around each side and vertex (point where the lines meet) of the squares.

I had two of our summer helpers work on this problem. Katie is a very bright college student and Logan will be a high school senior and likely the valedictorian of his class. They put together the net (pictured above on the left) with ease. However, they struggled to get the floppy pieces to shape up into the snub cube.

I checked on their progress after a while. I only added to the confusion. It just wasn’t working, which is what our customer had experienced.

I told Katie and Logan to approach this from a different perspective. I said, “Let’s build this by looking at the shape and recreating it.” Given that we hadn’t made any success with first method, both were eager to try a new tactic.

We started with the square on the right side of the shape pictured above. I said, “See how each side of the square has a triangle attached? And each square corner has two triangle points coming into it?” OK, I should have said “vertex”, but I didn’t.

I continued, “Then, when you have the square and 12 triangles attached, rotate, attach a square in the right spot, then build the same 12 triangles around that new square….” Katie and Logan jumped in and began building.

There was a small problem in the construction because Katie and Logan didn’t realize that two triangle vertices meet at the square vertices. Yes, I had told them that, but they didn’t apply what they had heard. We’ll address that issue in a minute…. After a quick conference and discovery, they went away and, in practically no time whatsoever, came back with a perfect snub cube and smiles all around!

I then challenged them to make the left handed version of the snub cube building the net then assembling, just to see if they could do it. They went off and came back shortly with a newly constructed snub cube.

I asked why they had no problems with the second net when the first was nothing more than a tangled mess. Katie responded, “Once we knew the pattern of two triangle points touching the corner of the square, it was easy!” Logan added, “The first time we did it, we were randomly attaching triangles here and there, which didn’t work! ”

So what have we learned here? First, when someone tells you something, it isn’t as effective as discovering and doing it yourself. I told Katie and Logan that each square corner has two triangle points coming into it. They heard me, but didn’t understand until they discovered it themselves, applied it, then developed the understanding for future situations.

Dr. Joan A. Cotter says, “What one discovers and understands is remembered better than anything learned by rote.” This knowledge made the second snub cube a breeze.

A second thing learned is patterns! Logan said, “It was easy going when we knew the pattern.” Once a pattern becomes evident, the randomness of a situation becomes organized and manageable. This can be applied to other polyhedras, to math in general, and to life as a whole.

P.S. Look at the polyhedras shown above. See any special patterns with the dark triangles? They share vertices with three squares and share edges with only other triangles. The lighter triangles share an edge with a square. Hmmmmm…..

## Autism, RightStart™, and Testing Scores

My 11 daughter has high functioning autism. We consider her to be a 5th grader, and she just finished up Level D (scoring 100% on the end of the year test!). She had serious problems with math until we found Right Start. She was 8 years old and still could not reliably tell you what 2+3 was. Then once she labored to figure that out, she couldn’t tell you what 3+2 was. It was like that every single time.

A dear friend let us borrow Level B for the summer so we could try it out before putting all the money into it (since she’s my last child, I was hesitant to invest so much money on yet another program that wouldn’t work). As you must have guessed, it was a huge success and I purchased the curriculum eagerly.

I just had my daughter take the ITBS (Iowa Test of Basic Skills) a couple of weeks ago for the first time. She has previously been tested by psychiatrists as part of her autism spectrum evaluations, but she’s never done a ‘bubble’ test where she had to read the questions herself and fill in the answers. For a child on the spectrum, that alone can be a challenge. And I have her take the grade-level tests simply so I can compare her to her age/grade peers. I know she will be behind in math because there are some topics she simply hasn’t covered yet, getting such a late start. Yet, she has always managed to test only slightly below grade level, which is amazing to me.

So this time, I was expecting her scores to be lower, because of the nature of the testing and this being something completely new to her. I was quite wrong! She scored in the 69th percentile for Math Concepts & Estimation. This is on the upper end of the Average range, and her grade equivalent was 6.8 (which means that she performed on this 5th grade test the way you would expect a child in the 8th month of 6th grade to perform on this test). For Problem Solving & Data Interpretation, she scored in the 51st percentile which is right in the middle of the Average range. Her grade equivalent was 5.9 which is exactly what she is! Her math computation scores are quite low but those are irrelevant to me because she has slow processing speed and I do not ever pressure her to finish the drill sheets for a fast time – and math computation is not included in the overall scoring anyway.

Breaking it down into the subsets, she scored 100% right on both Measurement and Probability & Statistics questions and also scored very high on the Algebra subset. To me, this shows that Right Start teaches kids how to think mathematically. And that, in my opinion, is the most important thing!

I have rambled on long enough, I think. I just wanted to share that my child with special needs – who didn’t even start using language to communicate until she was 3.5 years old and who didn’t understand anything to do with math until she was 8, just score on grade level and slightly higher as a 5th grader, when she has only finished the 3rd grade RightStart book! Amazing!!

Thank you, RightStart!
Jennifer C.